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STATEMENTS 



RESPECTING 



HOSPITALS IN CHINA, 



FRECEDED BY 



A LETTER 



JOHN ABERCROMBIE, M.D., V.P.R.S.E., 



REV. PETER PARKER, M.D,, 



MEDIC Al MISSIONARY OP THE AMERICAN BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS IN CHINA. 



GLASGOW: * 
JAMES MACLEHOSE, 83 BUCHANAN-STREET. 

MDCCCXLII. 



BELL AND BAIN, PRINTERS. 



STATEMENTS 



RESPECTING 



HOSPITALS IN CHINA 



PRECEDED BY 



A LETTER 



JOHN ABERCROMBIE, M.D., V.P.R.S.E., 



REV. PETER PARKER, M.D., 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS IN CHINA. 



GLASGOW: 

JAMES MACLEHOSE, 83 BUCHANAN-STREET. 

MDCCCXLII. 






GLASGOW: 
Printed by Betx & Bain, 15 St. Enoch Square. 



JOHN ABERCROMBIE, M.D., 

OXON. & EDIN., V.P.R.S.E., <fcc. <fcc. &c. 



Washington, (D.C.) U. S. A. Sept. I5tk, 1841. 

Sm, — Your talents and learning, and devotedness to the best inter- 
ests of man, as an intellectual and moral being, had long claimed my 
highest esteem ; and when to this sentiment was added the pleasure of 
a personal acquaintance during my late visit to Edinburgh, and you 
had shown so lively an interest in behalf of the Medical Missionary 
Society in China, I could not but wish to avail myself of the sanctions 
of a name so honourably known, both in England and America, to 
address the public of these countries on the subject of that Society, 
more explicitly than was done in the accompanying "Statements," — 
you kindly permitted me to do so. 

I proceed then to state that, on the 5th July, 1840, agreeably to 
the wishes of the Committee of the "Medical Missionary Society," 
I left China to spread before the benevolent and Christian public of 
England and America the claims of that Society. By the press, by 
public addresses, and by conversations, endeavours have been made to 
exhibit the principles and objects of the Society; and a very general 
interest has been manifested among different denominations of Christ- 
ians on both sides of the Atlantic. The sentiments of the Medical Pro- 
fession, in the principal cities of America, will appear from the resolu- 
tions contained in the "Statements." The gentlemen whose names 
are appended to those documents belong to five or six different religious 
denominations ; but they find in the plan of the Medical Missionary 
Society a common object of benevolent enterprize, in which all who 
regard the welfare of their species can harmoniously co-operate. 

In London I had the high satisfaction of making the acquaintance of 
numerous friends and distinguished personages. Sir Henry Halford, 
Bart., to whom, and to Dr. H. Holland, I had letters of introduction 
from the Hon. Daniel Webster, — self-moved, came forward three years 
since as an advocate of the principle adopted by the Medical Missionary 
Society in China. Sir Henry regarded it as providential that, after 
such an interval, the subject he had advocated should be recalled by 
one who had come from China for that purpose: — said he, " I shall be 
most happy to do any thing in my power to promote so good an object ; 
call at any time, and with all freedom." Shortly after a note was 
received from Sir Henry, requesting an early call as he had gratifying 
communications to make. The next day I found Sir Henry much 
gratified by the ready sympathy which gentlemen had expressed in this 
cause so near to his own heart. He observed, " Since we parted I 



have seen the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Duke of Wellington, Sir 
Robert Peel, the Bishop of Durham, the Bishop of London, and the 
Princess Sophia; all speak in terms of highest commendation that the 
plan is most rational and scriptural, and the mode adopted by the 
Saviour, &c. ; and several express their readiness to lay down their 
guineas to found scholarships for the education of Medical Missionaries 
to China." I had also the honour of an introduction to the Right 
Hon. Lord Bexley, so well known for his benevolence ; and through the 
politeness of Dr. H. Holland, and the Hon. A. Stevenson, to his Royal 
Highness Duke of Sussex, Marquis of Lansdown, Sir G. T. Staunton, 
Bart., and the Lord Bishop of London. An opportunity was also 
afforded of becoming acquainted with the principal physicians and sur- 
geons of the metropolis, — Mr. Vincent, late President of R.C.S., Sir 
Benjamin Brodie, Sir James Clark, Dr. Chambers, Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. 
Stroud, Dr. J. Forbes, Mr. Benjamin Travesse, Mr. Guthrie, President 
R.C.S., Mr. Lawrence, Mr. C. Aston Key, Mr. Listen, and many others; 
and among them all not a dissenting opinion was expressed upon tho 
subject. Dr. Forbes, editor of Foreign and British Review, in the 
number for July, thus notices the subject: — "In an early number of 
this Journal (vol. iv., p. 568,) we noticed the establishment of Medical 
Missions in China; and we are much gratified to learn that they have 
been most successful in their double capacity of providing for the tem- 
poral and spiritual wants of tho singular people on the borders of whose 
country they are planted. One of the most zealous and enlightened of 
these excellent Missionaries, the Rev. Peter Parker, M.D., of the 
United States, is now in England for the purpose of raising a permanent 
fund for the support of the "Medical Missionary Society in China," 
for the maintenance of the hospitals already established, and for the 
founding of others at every accessible and eligible part of China." 

" AVe earnestly commend the sacred cause in which Dr. Parker and 
his brethren are engaged, to the attention of all whose positions and 
means enable them to promote it. Independently of the richer fruits 
of their heroic labours, we look forward with confidence to great benefits 
which medicine may expect from them, in the observations of new 
forms of disease, and in the discovery of new therapeutic means in the 
natural productions of this vast and unknown country, and amid the 
mountains of pharmaceutic rubbish which have been accumulating in 
their traditionary and written records, from periods anterior to all 
accidental history. We shall even hope for no inconsiderable additions 
to our stock of oriental medicine, from the work which Dr. Parker is 
now preparing for the press, founded on his own observations in China." 

Tho Bishop of London, whose civilities to a stranger are duly appre- 
ciated, remarked that " the plan is most scriptural, and has the sanc- 
tion of the Saviour himself, and the publishers of the gospel in the early 
ages of Christianity; and so far have we been convinced of the import- 
ance of the subject, that these scholarships have been founded in King's 
College for the education of Medical Missionaries." 

The Royal College of Surgeons has acceded to a proposition which 
originated with one of the members of that body, to educate, medically, 
these Chinese youth that shall be sent to England for that purpose. 
The London Missionary Society had already affixed the seal of its ap- 
probation, by sending to China, as Medical Missionaries, William 
Lockhart, Esq. of Liverpool, and student of Guy's Hospital, and Ben- 
jamin Hobson, of Wellford, a graduate of London University College. 
I had also the pleasure of meeting the Directors of the London Mis- 



sionary Society, and of commending the object afresh to their attention, 
and of receiving their full assurance of interest in the cause. The Hon. 
and Rev. Baptist Noel, chaplain to Her Majesty, remarked, in refer- 
ence to the cause, "my heart is with you." The Rev. James Sherman 
of Surrey Chapel, and successor of Rowland Hill, spoke of it as a 
Society involving interests of great moment to the Missionary enter- 
prise, and one productive of vast good to the Chinese. The Rev. Drs. 
Reed, Matheson, Morison, Bennett, Burder, and Vaughan, and J. P. 
Smith, and many others in London, and Rev. Dr. Raffles, Rev. J. 
Kelly, Rev. H. M'Neill, and Rev. Dr. Ralph of Liverpool, have evinced 
their deep regard for the Society. In Paris, Rev. Mark Wilks, Generals 
Cass and Lasty, M. Louis, Countess Pellet, and many French of dis- 
tinction, express their high sense of its importance. Tho Rev. John 
Angel James, of Birmingham, in allusion to the subject, speaks of " the 
Saviour who, in his august, holy, and benevolent characters, combined 
the physician of both soul and body," and expressed his willingness to 
aid by his contribution. The Rev. Ralph Wardlaw, D.D., of Glasgow, 
thus writes, " Allow me, my dear sir, to assure you anew of the deep 
interest I feel in the object of your visit to this country. I have not, 
for a long time, met with a plan that has commended itself more 
strongly to the approbation of my judgment, and to the best desires 
of my heart. The combination of the corporeal and mental, the tem- 
poral and spiritual benefit of those who are its objects — and how vast 
the multitude of these! — gives it a very powerful claim on Christian 
philanthrophy. I wish you from my heart all success, and shall do 
what is in my power to promote the knowledge and acceptance of tho 
measure." The great and good Chalmers of Edinburgh, in a recent 
letter to a friend in New York, has expressed similar sentiments. In 
Germany the cause has also met with a cordial response. What, then, 
now remains? To concentrate, and carry into effect the interest so 
generally, and in so many countries manifested. When I contemplate 
the subject, and its magnitude expands into all its importance and 
moral grandeur, the exclamation is irrepressible, — Oh! that talent 
might be enlisted adequate to guide and foster the interest, and conduct 
the mighty enterprise to a successful consummation! The complaint 
has sometimes been made, that antiquity has exhausted the material of 
poetry and oratory, and has therefore precluded modern poets and 
orators from the possibility of being original; but of the philanthropist, 
in no one age, can it be said that his predecessors have left him nothing 
to accomplish. Howard, Clarkson, and Wilberforce, gathered rich 
harvests of good — they won laurels that will never fade ; yet what has 
been effected by the philanthropist of any one period does but open a 
wider field for the exercise of all the powers of those who may succeed 
him. To liberate man from physical, mental, and moral vassalage, 
and to disseminate the blessings of science and Christianity all over 
the globe, are sufficient for the mightiest intellects, and most benevolent 
hearts. Do we indeed say too much when we express tho opinion, that 
to remove the physical and moral evils of even three-fourths of the 
human race, is an enterprise worthy all Christendom? What, then, 
in respect to China is to be done? As far as it concerns the aim of 
the Medical Missionary Society, an answer in general terms may be 
found in the "Statements" regarding Hospitals in China; but nu- 
merous inquiries and difficulties suggested by friends have shown, that 
more information and explanation are needed. The original plan was 
to raise a permanent fund, the annual proceeds of which should be 



G 

adequate to support the existing Hospitals, and to multiply similar 
ones. But in England it was suggested, that it will be better for the 
present to attempt to procure only the annual sum requisite. In Bos- 
ton 4000 dollars have been subscribed for the permanent fund ot 
£20,000. It is optional with individuals to subscribe as they please,— 
those who contribute liberally for a permanent fund, will not be solicited 
from year to year. We have stated the object to be the maintenance of 
the Hospitals already established, and for the founding of others at every 
accessible and eligible part of China ; it being also a prominent object to 
train up Chinese youth of talent, to extend the blessings of the healing art 
through the empire, — in all our efforts never losing sight of the permanent 
object — the introduction of the Gospel. This is sufficiently definite to 
those who have been in China; they know what Hospitals are estab- 
lished, and what the accessible places alluded to. For others, it is not 
superfluous to explain, that the Medical Missionary Society has an 
Hospital at Canton, in buildings rented of the Chinese: that in the 
relations of foreigners with the Chinese hitherto, it would havo been 
inexpedient to invest property in buildings at Canton. At Macao the 
case is different, there being more security of property under the Por- 
tuguese government. The Society has purchased premises for 5000 
dollars, which originally cost 20,000 dollars, being sold below its real 
value for this benevolent purpose. These buildings are of a permanent 
structure, very commodious, and well adapted to the uses of an Hospital, 
or for a Medical College, should it ever become expedient to appropriate 
them in this manner. It is in a very healthy and pleasant situation, 
and has a garden and spacious grounds, and will accommodate 200 
patients. The Chinese population of Macao numbers about 30,000, 
Pih Shan, at the distance of a few miles, 5000, and Heangshan, only 
thirty miles distance, with land and water communication, contains 
about 40,000, and a numerous fleet of Chinese junks from other pro- 
vinces, particularly Fich-Kien, and hundreds of fishing craft anchor 
in the inner harbour. The number of those who will resort to this 
Hospital, as patients, is of course great. Canton, the city and suburbs, 
embraces from a million to a million and a half of inhabitants. Besides, 
it is one of the principal marts of the empire, receives the annual visits 
of great numbers of merchants and scholars from other districts of the 
province, (8000 students usually attending the annual examination,) 
and from other provinces. It must be obvious that an Hospital in such 
a city, to meet all the demands of so many, must be upon a broad scale, 
and not furnished with a solitary physician merely, but with one at 
least for each of the departments of a general Hospital; — one for the 
eye ; another for the ear ; a third for cutaneous affections ; a fourth for 
diseases of females ; one for diseases of children ; and still another, for 
fevers. A retreat for the insane, and an asylum for lepers should also 
be established without delay. 

What are some of the other accessible and eligible places to which 
the mind turns, as we look forward to the opening of the country? 
Chushan, e. g., where Dr. Lockhart has received from three to four 
thousand patients. The influence of a well-conducted General Hospital 
in the midst of its 60,000 permanent inhabitants, and the multitude of 
transient visitors from the continent, from Formosa, and neighbouring 
islands, would be incalculable ; and it is probable that at no distant 
day, the Formosands, seeing these institutions blessing the parent 
empire, and tolerated by its government, will be eager to enjoy the 
same boon. HonTcong, or whatever place is received in its stead will 



become another desirable position ; and we are sanguine in the belief, 
that before these are fully occupied, others equally advantageous will 
become accessible; and that even Nanking and Peking may yet bo 
embraced within the sphere of the Medical Missionary Society's opera- 
tions. We speak of the education of Chinese youth in the Medical 
profession, — how is this to be effected? The work has been begun. 
Several young men of promise are in a course of training, by gentle- 
men in connection with the society, being educated in their own and 
the English language. One of them is entirely supported by his 
father. The Royal College of Surgeons have nobly come forward in 
this cause, and will educate these youth who shall be selected and sent 
to England. May not the Royal College of Physicians do as much? 
Will not Cambridge, Oxford, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Edinburgh imi- 
tate the example? A medical gentleman in New York has pledged 
himself for the support of the same number in that city as the Royal 
College of Surgeons. Cannot Boston, New-Haven, Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, and Washington, vie in the good work? 

It is obvious, that to accomplish what may now be done at Canton 
and Macao, the amount of means will be considerable, and to effect all 
that is soberly contemplated, in the expectation of extending similar 
institutions to other parts of the empire along its border, the demand 
will be still greater. A fund of at least £20,000 or an annual sum of 
.£'1200 is exceedingly desirable, and after a year or two, from the res- 
toration of peace, double that sum will be called for. The agents of the 
Society receive their entire support from the Societies which send them 
out ; but the medicines, instruments, library, and other expenses of the 
Hospital are to be paid by this Society, and more or less expense will 
attend the sending of Chinese to England, or their education in China. 
Experience may teach, that the education should be given, for the most 
part, in China, and that a Medical College will be required ; and if so, 
this, too, must be endowed from the funds of the Society, and the sup- 
port of the Professors in the College must be provided for. 

A few obstacles and objections that have been raised require a brief 
notice. The first is, " We have poor enough in England;" "our own 
Hospitals are inadequate to the necessities of the needy sick." The 
delicacy of the case forbids to mention living objectors of this descrip- 
tion. This reflection, however, forced itself upon my own mind, — could 
these individuals of undoubted benevolence, yet of contracted views, but 
inform themselves of the extent and condition of the whole world, either 
from books or travelling, they would be filled with surprise that the 
village or borough in which they were bora could ever have so absorbed 
all their interest! It would have the happy effect of showing, that 
what they regarded as so great, is a " bagatelle, ' ' and they would no 
longer contract their efforts to the "nut shell," in which too many, as 
it respects their influence, live and die, but would expand their sympa- 
thies wide as the wants of men, and put forth exertions commensurate 
with their abilities and opportunities of blessing a world. 

Again, it is objected that "China is far off." Undoubtedly it is; 
but this does not diminish its claims, or render the evils it suffers less 
serious. Its fevers are as burning — insanity as raving — leprosy as 
polluting — blindness is as great — its cancer and stone as painful, and 
gout as excruciating as they would be, if only the Mersey or the British 
Channel separated them from the skill and charity that could relieve 
them. And what is more to the point, the money is as easily given to 
be expended on the one side of the world as the other. The donor 



has but to put it into the authorized channel, and, without farther soli- 
citude on his part, it is conveyed directly to its specified destination. ^ 

"The Chinese are rich and able to support their own hospitals 
They are the same that they have been time immemorial, and yet the 
people remain in all their destitution of the blessings we seek tor them. 
A few officers and wealthy merchants have offered pay, but any thing 
beyond a trilling present "has been uniformly declined, as it would de- 
tract much from the moral influenco of the' Institutions, were they to 
be known to the people as other than the fruits of the benevolence ot 
the Christian nations they affect to despise. There will be no objec- 
tion to the young men who are educated by us receiving fees. VV hen 
the government and the people generally know the value of the skill 
and science foreigners possess, and are imbued with the Christian spirit, 
then our work in this society will be done ; when the superstructure is 
completed, the staging may be taken down ; but at present the tender 
mercies of the rich Chinese are cruelty, as ocular demonstration have 
too often evinced to us. in the calamity of field, flood, and famine. The 
fact is too invincible that these suffering millions must remain as they are, 
or find relief from their "FAli off" fellow-beings. 

And the' mention at last, not least, of the objections is, " we are at 
WAE with China," and every thing is in nubibus as it respects our future 
relations with that country. Terhaps it should suffice to say, if hostili- 
ties continue, and no opportunity should present of appropriating the 
money, it shall be refunded or held subject to the order of the donors. But 
from this apparent objection, a cogent argument is derived in favour of 
doing speedily and liberally for this cause. When sweeping anathemas 
were pronounced upon England by high officers belonging to the " suit" 
of the Imperial Lein, the question was put to them — " are you not 
aware that even under the Celestial Dynasty there are good and bad? 
So among thoso you denounce all evil there are multitudes who desire 
the best good of your country. Respecting the insufferable traffic in 
opium, there is but one sentiment among all virtuous people of every 
nation." They were silent. Now the opportunity presents of verifying 
that assertion. Dr. Lockhart, at Chusan, and Dr. Hobson, at Macao, 
have attempted it. The Chinese, it has been remarked, could not at 
first comprehend that after having been wounded in battle with the 
English, they were carried to surgeons of that very nation to be healed, 
and apprehended they were doomed to torture and a more painful 
death ; but, in the healing hand of the foreigner, they learned that he 
did not thirst for blood, nor delight in hostilities for their own sake. 
We are sanguine that this campaign is not to be long protracted if pro- 
perly managed ; and indeed, at this moment the terms of an honourable 
treaty may have been settled, and friendly relations have commenced. 
Thousands have fallen in the field of battle, and tens of thousands of 
widows and orphans may have been multiplied within the last two 
years ; but hundreds of millions still survive, and in behalf of these and 
their successors in coming generations, we ask anew the means of de- 
monstrating the true character of Christian nations, and of accomplish- 
ing all the temporal and spiritual good contemplated by the " Medical 
Missionary Society in China." 



MEETING 



I.N BEHALF OF THE 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN CHINA, 



EXETER HALL BUILDING, LONDON, JULY I5th, 1841. 



At a meeting of the friends of " the Medical Missionary Society in China," 
held on the 15th instant, in Exeter Hall, Sir George Robinson, Bart., on mo- 
tion of Ebenezer Smith, Esq., seconded by H. H. Lindsay, M. P., was called 
to the chair. Sir George, on taking the chair, observed he had but recently 
arrived in the city, and that he had heard of the meeting only incidentally, 
but such was the interest he felt in the object, he had set aside every other 
engagement that he might be present. The Baronet then proceeded to inform 
the audience that, when he had the honour to hold the office of Chief Superin- 
tendent of British trade in China, he had the high satisfaction of witnessing the 
successful operations of the Society, and alluded in terms highly honourable to 
Pearson, Morrison, Livingston, and Colledge. He said he had much pleasure 
in meeting in this city Dr. Parker from America, whom he had known in China, 
and whose successful operations he had there followed with great interest. He 
alluded particularly to the amputation of an arm at the shoulder joint. Sir 
George Robinson expressed his full conviction, founded upon his personal 
knowledge of the Chinese, that the plan of the Medical Missionary Society was 
peculiarly fitted to the end it proposes, and he wished it all prosperity, and was 
ready to serve the cause in any way in his power. He had much pleasure in 
calling upon Dr. Parker, who would give some account of the state of medicine 
and surgery in China, and of what has been accomplished, and what may yet be, 
by the " Medical Missionary Society." 

Dr. Parker then arose and addressed the audience, after some preliminary ob- 
servations, nearly as follows: — ■" Gentlemen, you have been respectfully invited 
to attend this meeting, as being interested in the ' Medical Missionary Society in 
China,' and your acceptance of the invitation, and your presence, notwithstand- 
ing the unpleasantness of the evening, are gratifying evidences of your regard 
for so benevolent and vast an object." He held in his hand several letters from 
highly respectable men, expressing regret that they were prevented from being 
present. 

As the claims of the Society are in part based upon the destitution of enlight- 
ened medical and surgical skill in that country, he considered it appropriate to 
advert, though cursorily, to that subject, and give some illustrations of the pre- 
sent state of the healing art, as well as to allude to the operations in which he 
had been engaged during the most of the last seven years in China. Dr. Parker 
was inclined to think there had been a better state of medicine and surgery 
among the Chinese than at present. The universal encomiums pronounced upon 
Whato, who flourished in the twelfth century of the Christian era, indicate this, 
and imply that he was a bold operating surgeon. Tradition represents him as 
accustomed to operate for necrosis of bones; and that he was put to death for 
proposing to trephine the emperor. His majesty suspected he had designs upon 
his life, and in resentment caused the surgeon to be executed, and his works to 
be burnt. It is in consequence of this that tradition is the only source of infor- 
mation respecting this extraordinary man. 



10 

Whatever may have been the knowledge of surgery in former times, there is 
at present nothing deserving the appellation. To open an abscess with a lancet 
was the greatest operation he had known. Government sometimes orders tne 
amputation of all the limbs, and even of the head! How, in the amputation ot 
the legs and arms, the hemorrhage was commanded, was difficult to say, but pro- 
bably first by the application of charpic or other styptics, and then by applying 
a compress and roller round the whole stump. He had had a patient who tell 
from the roof of a house, and ran a splinter of wood about five inches long into 
his body, penetrating the sphincter-ani muscle, and wounding the prostate S' an ° - 
This the patient retained about three years, not daring to extract it, though the 
wood protruded more than an inch. At length the splinter worked out of itself. 
When he came to the hospital he voided bis urine from a fistula above the P UD . e *» 
and was reduced to a skeleton, having been the subject of great sufferings, which 
were shortly after terminated by death. Another ease occurred of a lad who had 
an adhesion of the edges of the eye-lids, depriving him of the sight of the eye 
for seven years. There was a space sufficient to introduce a probe at one angle 
and out at the other; and then with a single snip of the scissors the union was 
severed, and a beautiful black eye exposed to view. 

Dr. P. then proceeded to remark upon their medical books, of which there is 
no deficiency in numbers. He said the Pun-tsaou, or iMateria Medica, of the 
Chinese, exceeds forty volumes: that the system of classification in Botany and 
Natural History was as good as that adopted by western nations prior to the time 
of Jusseu and Linnaeus. Plants are classified by their habitat: birds also accord- 
ingly as they are found most frequently in ihe forest or the marsh; and animals, as 
they possess some points of resemblance to each other, either in figure or mode 
of living. Their description of plants and animals are often accurate; and their 
therapeutics and pharmaceutics are well defined. The effects of some articles of 
their Materia Medica are well described, but the causes of disease, and other 
hypotheses, upon which they explain the "modus operandi" of their remedies, 
are often childish and absurd. They believe in the influence of the dual prin- 
ciple of nature, the Yingandthe Yang, and also of the five elements as controlling 
diseases. 

The Chinese; as is well known, attach great importance to the puUe, and pre- 
tend to distinguish many kinds, some of which resemble the European classifica- 
tion. They have the weak and strong pulse, the undulating and bounding, and 
also what they denominate the "floating" and "deep" pulses. They attach 
importance to the point at which the pulse is felt, whether at the wrist or a few 
inches up the fore-arm. By the pulse some pretend to determine, during gesta- 
tion, whether the offspring is to be male or female. Dr. P. remarked that the 
Chinese are probably more successful in the treatment of fevers, by a kind of 
negative practice, attending to the diet, administering what they call "cooling" 
medicines, and generally in cases that belong to the physician rather than the 
surgeon. The two fundamental principles with them are, that "hot" diseases 
should be treated with "cooling" remedies, and vice versa. They give sudorifics, 
refrigerants, or stimulants, according to this classification of symptoms. In 
cases of debility, the bones of the tiger, reduced to a powder, and made into pills, 
are administered as a tonic. Their reasoning is, that the tiger is very strong and 
the bone is the strongest part of the strong animal; therefore, a pill of this must 
be pre-eminently strengthening. The stag's horn sells at an extravagant price, 
and is cut into thin pieces and macerated in spirits. 

Dr. Parker expressed an opinion that, their Materia Medica, when better 
known by Europeans, will be found to possess valuable sudorifics, diuretics, and 
refrigerants, from the vegetable kingdom. He remarked, they combine many 
ingredients in their prescriptions, on ihe principle, that out of the great number 
some one may be the right one. The Imperial Commissioner, Lein, wished 
from him a recipe for curing those who are accustomed to the use of opium, and 
when it was explained that there is no specific, that each case must be treated ac- 
cording to the symptoms, he desired to know if Dr. P. could not combine some 
twenty or thirty ingredients, and specify the quantity of the compound required 
to cure each patient. 



11 

Upon the medical education of the Chinese, he remarked, they have no dis- 
tinct medical schools. A diploma is sometimes conferred by the Honlin Col- 
lege, at Peking, upon persons who have gained some distinction for their preten- 
sions in this art; but, generally, the son becomes a physician because his father 
was, and the parent's nostrums descend to the son; or if he dies without issue, 
they are sold as a part of his estate. An instance occurred in Dr. Parker's prac- 
tice, in which a young man cut off his own tongue, and the hemorrhage was 
commanded by a vegetable styptic, the recipe of which he could not obtain for 
any consideration. It appears the Chinese have a great variety of medicines, 
both from the vegetable and mineral kingdoms. As illustrative of the little con- 
fidence the Chinese repose in their own physicians, he quoted the remark of an 
intelligent man, who said, if his father or mother were sick, he must send for a 
physician, for such was the custom of the country; but truly, he added, it is of 
little consequence who is called, all are alike useless — "physicians of no value." 
It is a common practice to take the names of several physicians, and draw one of 
them by lot. 

Having given a number of illustrations of the ignorance and quackery of the 
Chinese that had fallen under his own observation, he (Dr. Parker,) remarked 
that, in such a state of medical practice, the people were most ready to appreciate 
and welcome the superior skill of Europeans. In alluding to the history of the 
efforts of western nations to confer some of the benefits of a more scientific and 
skilful practice, he gave a just tribute to his friend, Dr. T. R. Colledge, who, by 
his successful endeavours to benefit the Chinese, he considered entitled to a place 
on the same list of philanthropists as Howard, Clarkson, and Wilberforce. Be- 
side his employments as surgeon to the Honourable East India Company, he 
found leisure, and did not spare the labour, to treat many hundreds, and even 
thousands, of Chinese of all ranks, and from different parts of the empire, who 
gave him unequivocal tokens of gratitude. 

As most of his audience had seen the pamphlet respecting the " Establishment 
of Hospitals in China," and as there were those to follow him who had been in 
China, and would favour the assembly with the results of their observations, lie 
said it was unnecessary for him longer to occupy their attention. Having given 
a brief account of the hospitals, and having explained the origin of the Medical 
Missionary Society, he adverted to the magnitude of the enterprise; that there 
is but one China, with its 360,000,000; that he regarded the object as one which 
particularly commends itself to the sympathies of the medical profession: and 
although he would not anticipate others, he wished to notice an assertion upon 
the profession of medicine — that its tendency is to fatalism and materialism; and 
to blunt the better susceptibilities of man's nature, insomuch that some had he- 
come so indifferent to human suffering as to stop in the midst of an amputation, 
and refuse to proceed unless the terms of the operator were acceded to. Such 
a case, he remarked, might have occurred, but who would not say the man was 
unworthy to be called a surgeon! The smile, to give it a mild term, that he had 
sometimes witnessed, when it was suggested that medical men would take an inter- 
est in the benevolent object now proposed, was something more like evidence 
that they had become wanting in the spirit of benevolence; but, said he, it is 
time practically to refute the calumny. He would appeal to history and inquire, 
who, when pestilence and plague were depopulating cities, had stood between the 
destroyer and their fellow-men, at the risk of their own lives, and would do it 
again? He would appeal to the faculty and ask, if it is to be conceded that they 
are only or chiefly interested in their profession as it affords emolument, and gives 
influence and a name ? Or, are there not those who regard as their richest reward, 
the alleviations of human suffering, and the gratitude of those whose health and 
lives had been instrumentidly saved by them? Witness, said he, the triumphs of 
surgery as in aneurism and stone, and behold the emotions of the relieved sufferer, 
and say, if there be not in this a gratification which no emolument can equal! 
Now, gentlemen, the object proposed is no less than to extend to the most popu- 
lous empire that has ever existed similar benefits ; an object that is practicable. 
If the medical profession of the present age will take it up, and, with the co- 
operation of the clergy, will give it their united support, the enterprise, great as 



12 

it is, shall be gained. If they will not, it remains for an age more benevolent, 
and for men more philanthropic, to bestow on the Chinese the boon, and to share 
the satisfaction of having blest such an empire. 

Several resolutions were then submitted, and carried unanimously. The first 
was moved by Wm. Jardine, M.P., and seconded by Thomas Hodgkin, M. D. 
I, Resolved, "That this audience regard with deep interest the operations of the 
' Medical Missionary Society in China,' established by American and English 
residents at Macao and Canton, and believe the plan adopted happily calculated to 
teach the Chinese the true character of western nations, and the Christian reli- 
gion, besides being a means of great good in the relief of much human suffering." 

Mr. Jardine in moving the resolution stated what had fallen under his own ob- 
servation in China, and remarked, he could enumerate many things which Dr. 
Parker's modesty did not allow him to mention. He recollected an instance 
in which a member of the Imperial family applied to the Doctor for relief: that 
officers of high rank, and in great numbers, had availed themselves of his skill. 
Tablets and poems, without number, had been presented by patients, containing 
the expressions of their gratitude. In reference to the case alluded to, in which 
th? splinter remained so long, he explained, that a native practitioner would have 
been afraid to extract it, because if death had followed, he might have been held 
responsible. 

Dr. Hodgkin said he had much pleasure in seconding the resolution; — that 
the object of the society was most philanthropic, and happily adapted to recom- 
mend to uncivilized and heathen nations the Christian religion: that it addressed 
itself to the senses and the interests of such men, and was a powerful means of 
gaining their confidence and gratitude: that all history proved it, and he adduced 
some examples that had occurred in Africa ; but he urged as most important, that 
it was the course pursued by the Saviour himself, who, while seeking, first and 
chiefly, the good of the soul, did not fail to care for the bodies also of men. 
He thought it a delightful feature of the Society, that Christians of different 
nations were united in it, and spoke in terms of high commendation, that Ameri- 
cans had not taken advantage of the present position of England towards China, 
to the prejudice of the English, and expressed his satisfaction, that his friend Dr. 
Parker had availed himself of the crisis to visit this country, and that he should 
have been sorry to have had him leave London without this meetiwr: that no- 
thing was more calculated to convince the Chinese of the disinterestedness of 
the Christian religion, than to see those who are its friends, irrespective of national 
differences, uniting to disseminate their common religion, or words to that effect. 

The second Resolution was moved by Theophilus Thomson, M.D., and 
seconded by H. H. Lindsay, M. P. 

2. Resolved, "That the objects and claims of the Medical Missionary Society 
in China especially commend themselves to the sympathy and co-operation of 
the Medical Profession." 

We regret not being able to give in his own words the remarks with which 
Dr. Thomson moved this Resolution. It had been a subject of surprise to him, 
that this mode of doing good had been so much overlooked in conducting Mis- 
sionary operations. That it was a fact of deep interest to the medical profession, 
that the great Author of our religion (he said it with reverence,) was the first 
Medical Missionary. He said this Society aimed at something more than the 
triumphs of science. Honours more distinguished than those of discoverers 
and geographers attend those who engage in it. That it contemplates not merely 
the removal of the sufferings of this life, but those also which dealh cannot ter- 
minate. It regards not only the body, but especially the soul, &c. 

Mr. Lindsay arose and expressed his high sense of the services of this Society, 
and the exalted principles by which its agents are actuated. That they must be 
influenced by a higher motive than this life affords. It is a religious service they 
render. He then mentioned what he also had witnessed in the hospitals in 
China, and corroborated the statements of Sir George Robinson, and others who 
had preceded him. He alluded to a coroner's inquest, held by the Nanhaeheen 
in a case of death of a patient, that occurred in the hospital while he was in 
Canton, as illustrating fhe influence of the institution, which, by this event was 



13 

brought distinctly before the government. The testimony of the Hong merchants 
in their petition requesting the government to pursue the legal course on the 
occasion, was highly commendatory of the institution. 

The third Resolution was moved by the Rev. Evan Davis, and seconded by 
Dr. Risdon Bennett. 

ad Resolution. " In anticipation of the operations of the Medical Missionary 
Society in China, not only being fully resumed, but that they may be prosecuted 
upon a much wider basis than before, and with increased facilities; and much of 
the local support being cut off, Resolved, That Committees be appointed in Lon- 
don, and the same be recommended in other parts of England, and also in 
America, to consult with any persons who may take an interest in the Medical 
establishments in China, and to take such measures as may seem expedient to 
obtain the aid required." 

[A provincial Committee, consisting of several members of Parliament, mem- 
bers of the medical profession, and ministers of the gospel of different denomina- 
tions, was appointed.] 

A fourth Resolution was moved by George Fadescant Lay, Esq., and seconded 
by J. Sparks, Esq. 

4th Resolution. Resolved, " That the Committee be requested to embrace a 
favourable opportunity of bringing this subject before the public generally, and 
that a meeting in Exeter Hall, or elsewhere, be convened for the purpose, and 
also to take the requisite measures for raising the funds to sustain and extend the 
operations of this Society among the millions of China." 

A vote of thanks to the chairman, Sir George Robinson, Bart., was then 
moved by Ebenezer Smith, Esq., and seconded by Horatio Hardy, Esq., and the 
meeting adjourned. 

N.B An Auxiliary Society had been previously formed in London, entitled, 

the " Medical Philanthropic Society, for China and the East," and will act in 
concert with the provisional Committee appointed at this meeting. 



MEETING IN BEHALF OF THE 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN CHINA, 

Convened in Edinburgh, July 26th, 1841. 

A meeting in behalf of the Medical Missionary Society in China was held on 
the 26th instant, at the Waterloo Hotel in Edinburgh. The Lord Provost of the 
city, Sir James Spital, was called to the chair. Dr. Abercrombie stated the ob- 
ject of the meeting, and said, he had great pleasure in introducing Dr. Parker of 
America, whose successful labours as a Medical Missionary in China, for a num- 
ber of years, had rendered his name familiar, &c, and who would more fully 
explain the objects of the Society in whose behalf he had visited Scotland. 

Dr. Parker then addressed the meeting at some length, giving a view of the 
present state of Medical knowledge in China, a detailed account of his own 
labours, the circumstances under which the Medical Missionary Society had 
originated, and the claims of the Chinese, and adverted with animation to the 
present indications of Providence concerning that empire. 

Notwithstanding the very short notice which had been given, a very respect- 
able number of the elite of the city were present, and listened with manifest in- 
terest to the communications of Dr. Parker on the occasion. The university, 
the clergy, the medical profession, the merchants and bankers of Edinburgh, 
were well represented at the meeting. At its close, on motion of Rev. Dr. 
Welsh, seconded by Dr. Beilby, the subjoined Committee were appointed, with 
power to add to their number. A vote of thanks being moved to the Lord 
Provost, and carried by acclamation, the meeting adjourned. 



14 

Committee in Edinburgh formed to eo-operate witli the Medical Missionary 
Society in China: — 

Sir George Ballingall. Rev. Dr. Welsh. 

Sir Wm. Newbigging. Rev. Dr. Dickson. 

Dr. Abercrombie. Rev. Dr. Paterson. 

Dr. Alison. Rev. D. T. K. Drummond. 

Dr. Beii.bv. Rev. James Buchanan. 

Dr. Coldstream. Rev. Wm. Innes. 

Dr. Graham, Pres. R.C.P. Rev. Geo. D. Cui.len. 

Dr. Huie, Pres. R. C. S. Arch. Bonar, Esq. 

Professor Syme. John Duni.op, Esq. 

Joseph Bell, Esq. J. S. More, Esq. 

William Brown, Esq. 

John Thomson - , Esq., (Pres. R. Bank of Scot.,) Treasurer. 

Dr. RANsroRD, Secretary. 

N. B — Dr. Parker had also an opportunity of addressing an audience of Ladies 
in Edinburgh, on the same subject, and is encouraged to expect efficient aid 
from them also in this object. 



MEETING IN GLASGOW, JULY 28nr, 1841. 

A meeting, similar to the one held in Edinburgh, convened at Carrick's Royal 
Hotel, in Glasgow, on the 28th instant. The Lord Provost, Hon. James Camp- 
bell, was called to the chair. W. P. Paton, Esq. stated to the audience, that he 
could not better introduce Dr. Parker, than by reading a letter he brought from 
James Mathieson, Esq., of Canton, to William Mathieson, Esq., of this city. 
Having read the letter, he said that Dr. Parker was personally a stranger to him 
till within a few days, although he had long been familiar with his name and 
success in China, and that of his friend Dr. Colledge. William Gemmel, Esq., 
late of Canton, being called upon, expressed the interest he had felt in the hospi- 
tals there, and spoke of the good they had effected. Dr. Parker then presented, 
as on other occasions, the objects and claims of the Society in China, &c, &c. 
and which were listened to with apparently deep regard, by the following gentle- 
men present: — 

Hon. James Campbell, Rev. Dr. Smith, Rev. Dr. Buchanan, Rev. Lewis 
Rose; Drs. John Macfarlane, Perry, Ritchie, Watson, Rainy, Davidson, and 
King; Messrs. A. Galbraith, Wm. Gemmel, J. Gemmel, H. Crum, A Duncan, 
J. S. Blyth, M. Lethem, Edward Clarke, and W. P. Paton. In consequence 
of a letter from Edinburgh failing to reach its destination in Glasgow in due 
time, the notice of this was very limited. The gentlemen present having formed 
themselves into an interim Committee, the thanks of the audience was moved to 
the Lord Provost for his services on the occasion, and the meeting adjourned. 



MEETINGS IN LIVERPOOL, AUG. 2d and 3d, 1841. 

A Meeting of the medical profession of Liverpool was held at the Hall of the 
Medical Institution, on the 2d of August, 1841. Dr. Fromby was called to the 
chair. The following notice of this meeting is taken from the Liverpool 
Standard of the 3d August, 1841. 

" Meeting of the Medical Profession of the Town, on the State of Medical 
Science, §-c, in China. — Yesterday, at one o'clock, a meeting of medical and 
surgical gentlemen of the town, and others, was held at the Medical Institution 
Mount Pleasant, in pursuance of invitation from Dr. Parker, who has recently 
returned from a successful missionary campaign in China, and who proposed to 



15 

submit a brief statement of the present state of medicine and surgery in China, 
and the establishment of hospitals in that country. 

" The meeting, almost solely of professional men, was numerously attended. 
The whole of the seats in the lecture-room were occupied, their being present 
from fifty to sixty individuals. Dr. Fromby was called to the chair. Dr. Parker, 
in his exordium, dwelt upon the importance of the objects he had in view, which 
were, first, to enlighten the empire of China in the sciences of physic and sur- 
gery; and secondly, having opened the way by their means, to spread amongst the 
vast population of that country, the blessings of Christianity. He went on to 
show the defective and erroneous state of medical science in that country. He 
then proceeded to adduce a number of cases that had fallen within his own ex- 
perience, showing the great value of hospitals in that country, not only in the 
advancement of science amongst the nations, and in the practical benevolent 
effects, but in conciliating the good feelings of the natives, and thereby clearing 
the way for the introduction of Christian principles among them, and by remov- 
ing the jealousy of foreigners, entertained by that, extraordinary people, tending, 
in a high degree, to promote between them and Europeans an amicable and pro- 
fitable system of commerce. He instanced a case of treatment for suspended 
animation, from immersion in the water, and a variety of others, showing the ex- 
treme ignorance of the Chinese faculty, and detailed his success in many of them, 
to the astonishment of the Chinese, whose gratitude was unbounded. He next 
noticed the labours of British practitioners in China. Amongst these was Dr. 
Pearson, formerly of this town, who was the first to introduce vaccination, now 
extensively practised there, a native doctor named Longhead, (from the extra- 
ordinary length of his head,) being now the principal practitioner in Canton. 
Tbe latter said, during a practice of thirty years, he had vaccinated upwards of a 
million of persons. Drs. Livingstone, Morrison, and Colledge, had also been 
highly successful. Dr. Colledge, in treating cases of ophthalmia, had restored 
to the dark eye-balls of hundreds the blessed light of day. He himself had em- 
barked for China in J 8.34, attached to the A. B. C. F. M., and the scene of his 
labours had chiefly been at the ophthalmic hospital at Canton. Another was 
also established at Macao. He had also been to Singapore, where he established 
an infirmary, and soon became known as 'the foreign physician.' The patients 
who were cured or relieved were, he added, very generally induced to read the 
Society's books, and he related several affecting instances of their conversion to 
Christianity. At first he received but slight encouragement, but eventually one 
patient brought another, until the street, was frequently crowded with applicants 
for relief. During the recent political commotions his labours, and those who 
acted with him, were nearly arrested, but he attended to patients at his own house. 
Before he left Canton, in June last year, the number of patients had not been 
less than eight thousand. Many of the chief officers of the empire, (including 
Imperial Commissioner Lin,) had sought and obtained relief, and their expres- 
sions of gratitude were unbounded. Tbe institution was opened for cases of 
ophthalmia alone ; but soon surgical cases forced themselves upon his attention, 
which it was impossible not to attend to ; and, though the original name of the 
institution was retained, it had now become a general hospital. He noticed 
several cases of the cure of cataract — aud one in particular, of an old woman of 
seventy-eight. The treatment of the native doctors in these and other cases was 
most unscientific. A case of cure of a young woman who fell from the roof of 
a house during a thunder-storm, and was severely wounded, excited much in- 
terest. He next noticed a variety of successful operations on parties afflicted 
with enormous tumours. The gratitude of the parties in these and other cases 
was excessive, and demonstrated, in some instances, in affecting pieces of poetry, 
or in that poetical language peculiar to eastern countries. Among others, the 
father of a little girl, who was brought and cured, afterwards brought a tablet on 
which was inscribed ' You have removed the flaw from the gem, and my beloved 
child is again a perfect pearl.' He concluded by a strong appeal in behalf of 
the Medical Missionary Society. The principal immediate object was to en- 
courage gentlemen of the medical profession to go and practice gratuitously 
among the Chinese, by affording the usual aid of hospitals, medicine, and atten- 



16 

dams; but the support or remuneration of such medical gentlemen was no at 
present within its contemplation. From the peculiar character of the people, 
and their government, it was requisite that the Missionary should, in addition to 
a thirst for the propagation of Christianity, possess the capabilities of the phy- 
sician and surgeon. He enumerated many friends of the institution in London, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, and other towns, including Sir George Stanton, the Rev. Dr. 
Wardlaw, the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Duke of Wellington, Sir R. Peel, and many others. The medical profession, who 
had ever been the foremost to encounter plague and pestilence for the relief of 
their fellow creatures, would, he trusted, not be backward in assisting to give en- 
lightened practice to a country containing 360,000,000 of inhabitants. Great suc- 
cess had already attended the circumscribed operations of the Society, and if the 
English and Americans, (the latter of whom had already come forward most hu- 
manely in the cause,) only put their shoulders to the wheel, Christianity, com- 
bined wilh the healing art, would take root in China. In regard to commerce, 
too, the chief superintendent of British trade well remarked of the Society, that 
the surgeon's knife was better calculated to conciliate the Chinese than any 
weapons of war. The Royal College of Surgeons in this country bad, he was 
happy to say, agreed to educate three Chinese youths, to promote the objects in 
view; and when he returned to China, it would be his object to select three pro- 
mising young men for that purpose. After a warm eulogium on Dr. Lockhart, 
for his labours in the cause, he concluded by stating, that if the medical men 
here would forward the objects stated, in behalf of the millions in China, their 
benevolence would meet with the heart-felt gratitude of all who were attached to 
the cause which he had the pleasure to advocate. 

" After a vote of thanks being passed to Dr. Parker, for the interesting infor- 
mation he had afforded, a Medical Committee was named, and appointed to carry 
out his views. Among them were, 

Dr. Fohmby. Dr. Sutherland. 

Mr. Bickersteth. Mr. Batty. 

Mr. Blackburn. Mr. Eden. 

Dr. Dickens. Mr. Neill. 

Dr. Ramsay. Dr. Robertson. 

Mr. Ellison. Dr. Moffat. 

Mr. Blower. 

A further Committee of non-professional gentlemen remains to be formed at a 
subsequent meeting. The meeting then separated." 



GENERAL MEETING, HELD AUG. 3d, 1841. 

August 3d, 1841. 
A General Meeting of ladies and gentlemen of all the principal religious 
denominations, was held in the Charitable Institution in Slater- Street, Liverpool. 
Samuel Job, Esq. was called to the chair, and after appropriate remarks expres- 
sive of his sense of the importance of the object of the meeting, called upon the 
Rev. Dr. Ralph to lead an address to the throne of grace. 

Rev. P. Parker, M. D., then arose and addressed a full and attentive audience 
as follows: — "It is not an ordinary object, my friends, for which we are convened 
this morning. Could we obviate the circumstances that tend to diminish the 
apparent interest, I mean the distance from us of the objects of our benevolent 
interest, and the fact, that to most of us they are unseen and unknown; could we 
mentally even annihilate the intervening space of the diameter of the globe be- 
tween us and the Chinese; could we by any means bring distinctly before the 
mental and moral eye, the Chinese as they are — in all their destitution of the 
richest blessings we enjoy, and we in their stead afflicted with the opposite of 
these blessings, I am sure there is not one here who would not admit the correct- 
ness of the conclusion, that it is an extraordinary occasion for which we are con- 



17 

vened; for it is no less than to take measures to promote the best temporal and 
eternal welfare of hundreds of millions of our fellow-men. 

Perceiving that a full report of the facts stated at the meeting of medical and 
other gentlemen, yesterday, has been given in the Liverpool papers of this 
morning, I shall avoid repeating in detail the illustrations of the state of the heal- 
ing art in China, farther than to show the general fact that the Chinese, with all 
their pretensions to wisdnm and superiority, are exceedingly destitute of skilful 
physicians, and that the grossest quackery prevails among them. They have no 
regular system of medical education. The study of anatomy is not practised, and 
surgery of course is unknown. 

It was at comparatively an early age I was led to see my need of the grace of 
the Gospel, and to find the Saviour to be the chief of ten thousand. In early 
youth the contrast between things which are merely temporal and those that are 
eternal, was deeply impressed upon my mind, and the fixed desire was formed to 
live in reference to the whole of my existence; that portion which is beyond the 
grave, as well as on this side of it. With these views, my purpose (providence 
permitting) of becoming a missionary to China was made, and before leaving 
America, the sincerest and strongest desires of my heart were felt and cherished 
to labour for the accomplishment of permanent good; good that shall extend be- 
yond the brief period of the longest life. The reflection often crossed my mind 
and lingered as it passed, that a thousand years hence it will be of comparatively 
little consequence what the bodies of the Chinese suffered or enjoyed here; but 
that no coming period or cycle of ages will diminish the benefit done to the soul. 
I mention this, my respected friends, not for the sake of obtruding upon you 
things of so personal a nature, and which may be regarded as belonging exclu- 
sively to one's own bosom; but I do it for the sake of showing under what cir- 
cumstances so much of my time and energies have been devoted to healing the 
maladies of the body. It has been with these feelings, and with the best exercise 
of my judgment, and the approbation of God, that my course as a Medical Mis- 
sionary has been adopted. When the house is built we shall be willing the stag- 
ing be taken down. After presenting an account of the origin of the Medical 
Missionary Society, and facts illustrative of the benefits of the hospitals; that 
Dr. Colledge had treated 4000, Dr. Parker 8000, Dr. Lockhart 3000, and Dr. 
Hobson a considerable number more, he gave some details of his own practice in 
diseases of the eyes and tumours, and other surgical cases, which were listened to 
with deep interest. 

He then adverted particularly to Dr. Lockhart of Liverpool, who had sacrificed 
flattering prospects at home, that he might extend to the Chinese the blessings 
of the Gospel, and said that God had most signally owned his labours, particu- 
larly in Chushan, where such multitudes had sought his aid. He spoke of the 
interest manifested by ladies in London and in Edinburgh; gave a feeling ac- 
count of the desolations of war in that country; that though oceans and con- 
tinents obstruct the reports of cannon from falling upon our ears, yet they 
reverberate on the hills and through the valleys of China. Mothers and daugh- 
ters there had been violated, and widows and orphans have been multiplied. You 
do not see it, but the appalling facts stand out. In times past I have told the 
Chinese that they have friends in England— was I mistaken ? Then let the as- 
surance be verified. We ask not that you engage in a Quixotic enterprise, hut 
in one that has been submitted to the test of experiment and succeeds. The 
Saviour adopted it : his apostles adopted it ; and so have others in ancient and 
modern times. Elliot the apostle to the American Indians tried it. Dr. Grant 
(whose book respecting the lost ten tribes will richly reward those who shall per- 
use it) has tried it in Persia. Dr. Bradley in Siam. A Christian Jew is now on 
his way from Cambridge (England) to Jerusalem, in the capacity of a Medical 
Missionary; but no where has the experiment succeeded better than at Macao, 
Canton, and Chushan. In conclusion, Christian friends, with what delight should 
we cherish the fresh hopes revived in us, that an auspicious morning has dawned 
upon China! that one avenue at least into the empire is, in the providence of 
God, now opened. Have you been sincere in your prayers for that country ? 
then your hearts must rejoice at the prospect of soon realising the answers to them. 

I) 



18 

Several Resolutions were then passed unanimously. The first was moved by 
the Rev. Dr. Ralph, and seconded by Rev. John Kelly. 1st. " That the meet- 
ing regards, with deep interest, and with gratitude to God, the operations of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China, (established by American and English 
residents at Canton and Macao,) by which the blessings of the healing art have 
been extended to more than 10.000 Chinese; and believe the plan adopted by 
the Society most happily calculated to convey to the Chinese the true character 
of Christian nations and the Christian religion, and that it is fully sanctioned by 
the precepts and example of the Saviour." 

We are unable to do justice to Dr. Ralph, in reporting the observations with 
which he moved the resolution. He thought pious medical men everywhere 
were not aware of the great and good influence they are capable of exercising. 
He also remarked that the Saviour was no fanatic, and his example was worthy 
of all imitation. In respect to China we have no choice; the plan adopted by 
the Medical Missionary Society is almost the only one, and its influence of infin- 
ite importance in heathen countries. 

The Rev. Mr. Kelly spoke of the simplicity and Catholic principles of the 
Medical Missionary Society. He would not approve of uniting the two profes- 
sions in ministers at home. He said the conviction was gaining ground in favour 
of the plan for heathen countries, and thought there could be no doubt remaining 
upon the minds of those who had listened to the statement presented by Dr. 
Parker, and expressed his hope that Liverpool would come forward nobly in 
support of the cause, and made honourable mention of Dr. Lockhart who had 
gone out from this city. 

Another Resolution was moved by the Rev. Mr. Creighton, and seconded by 
Roberts. Esq. 

Resolved, " That a Committee be appointed to act in conjunction with the 
Medical Committee already chosen, &c.;" we have not the words of the Resolu- 
tion. Mr. Creighton said if we go forward the work will be done ; the work is of 
God, and will not fail of accomplishment. The principle of the Society com- 
mends itself to every heart and mind. Science, said he, has been used by infi- 
delity to the prejudice of Christianity; here we make it the hand-maid of reli- 
gion; would that the principle were applied to other lands also. He expressed 
the hope that the ladies of Liverpool would also take up the cause. 

The following Committee was then appointed to co-operate with the one ap- 
pointed the day before. 

— Armstrong, Esq. Mrs. Campbell. 

J. Cropper, Esq. Mrs. D. Ramsay. 

Mr. Anderson. Mrs. Wm. Hope. 

Mr. Matheson. Mrs. Matheson. 

Mr. Thompson, Secy. Mrs. M'Fie. 
Rev. H. M'Neill. Mrs. Stewart. 

Rev. Dr. Ralph. Mrs. Crawford. 

Rev. Dr. Raffles. Mrs. Major Thompson. 

Rev. J. Kelly. Mrs. Dr. Sutherland. 

Mrs. Lyon. 

Miss E. Lockhart. 
The thanks of the meeting to Samuel Job, Esq. was moved by Rev. P. 
Parker, and Seconded by Rev. J. Kelly, and the meeting adjourned. 



These, Sir, are abridged and imperfect notices of the meetings held 
in different cities in Great Britain. In numerous other cities similar 
ones had been held, if the early period fixed for my return had not 
prevented. I regretted my inability to visit Manchester and Leeds and 
particularly not to be able to accept a polite invitation to attend the 
meeting of the Medical Association of Great Britain, at their annual 
meeting held at l ork. 



19 

Though the objects are many and vast which are contemplated in 
this Pamphlet, and the amount of money requisite is considerable ; yet, 
Sir, it is obvious from the persons who have taken up the cause, and 
from the resources of the two countries, nothing can be more practic- 
able. The learned and accomplished Wheivell, in his most interesting 
address before the British Association for the promotion of Science, 
says, " That I may not dwell on mere generalities, I will mention a few 
of the sums expended by the Association upon scientific researches;" 
and stated, " that in the eighth and ninth years of the existence of that 
Association over ,£1500 were each year expended; and it appears that 
during the past year we have expended in this manner the sum of £1240. 
And these sums, it is to be observed, are only a part of what were voted 
at Liverpool in 1837; above £3000 was voted, of which £1000 only 
was applied for. At Newcastle £3700 was voted, £1000 of this was 
paid. At Birmingham £2800 was voted, and £1500 paid. The sum 
voted at Glasgow last year was £2G00, of which £1240 was paid." 
Now these were generous sums, and for a noble object ; one that con- 
templates the elevation and the happiness, not of Great Britain merely, 
but of mankind. Yet, in a practical point of view, is not the object now 
proposed, of alleviating the pains, opening the eyes of the blind, and 
elevating to immortality 360,000,000 of fellow-beings in China, one of 
far greater magnitude, and deserving a proportionate generosity on the 
part of the benevolent and religious public ? 

With sentiments, dear Sir, of highest esteem and friendship, yours 
sincerely, 

Peter Parker. 

N.B. — Since the above was written, I have received a letter from Sir 
George Thomas Staunton, Bart., enclosing a letter from the Royal 
College of Surgeons, a copy of which is appended, as it illustrates the 
good will of that important body to the object. 

" Royal College of Surgeons in London, 8th Sept. 1841. 

" Sir, — Your letter to Mr. Vincent, the late President, of the 21st of June 
last, enclosing, and recommending to favourable consideration, a letter from the 
Rev. Dr. Parker, requesting the co-operation of this College in sustaining the 
hospitals already established in China, and in founding others, and, in any way 
consistent with the designs of this College, aiding in the education of a number 
of Chinese of talent in the healing art, has been laid before the council. 

"And I am directed by the President, Mr. Guthrie, to acquaint you, that the 
council is desirous of forwarding, in any feasible manner, the object of Dr. Par- 
ker's application, and will be ready to communicate with the Secretary of State 
upon the subject, if deemed expedient. At the same time I have to state the 
conviction of the President, that gratuitous surgical education may be guaranteed 
to six or more Chinese youths, in some of the public hospitals of this metropolis, 
if any arrangement could be made for their care and support therein. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient humble Servant, 

(Signed) "Edward Balfour, Secy." 

"Sir Geo. Thos. Staunton, Bart., §c. Sfc. Sec." 



ESTABLISHMENT 



HOSPITALS IN CHINA. 



That the union of the art of healing with that of teaching, in the mis- 
sionary of modem times, is as important as in the early ages of Christ- 
ianity, is no longer doubtful The experiment has been made, and 
succeeds. Healing by miraculous agency was employed at the com- 
mencement of the Christian era, chiefly as other preternatural powers 
were, to establish the divinity of Christianity. A still further object 
was to exhibit the beneficent spirit of the Gospel. The age of miracles 
and the occasion for them ceased together ; but the spirit of the Gospel 
is tho same in every age. Healing the sick, opening the eyes of the 
blind and the ears of the deaf, and causing the tongue of the dumb to 
speak and the lame to walk, by natural and scientific means, is not less 
calculated, in the nature of things, to conciliate favour, and to demons- 
trate the disinterested and benevolent genius of Christianity now, than 
it was eighteen centuries ago. Though the practice of medicine and 
surgery among western nations is founded upon science, yet, to an un- 
civilized and superstitious nation, it has much of the appearance of a 
superhuman power, which may lawfully subserve a good end, if the 
truth of tho caso be distinctly stated, and their credulity be not imposed 
upon. The gratuitous practice of medicine and surgery, founding hos- 
pitals and infirmaries, confers a direct and great good upon suffering 
humanity. These have ever been regarded as objects worthy the sup- 
port of the benevolent. Often have the rich, in tho near prospect of an 
exchange of worlds, when seeking for a mode of disposing of the wealth 
they cannot carry hence, bequeathed a liberal portion of their property 
t<> such objects, as one of the best means of evincing their gratitude for 
the enjoyment of it while they lived, as well as a happy method of 
embalming their names in the grateful recollections of myriads, through 
coming ages, who shall enjoy the fruits of their well-applied munificence. 
This species of charity is pecubarly needed in China. To sustain the 
hospitals already established in the empire, and to multiply them, as 
the way is prepared, and in them to train up Chinese youth, to extend 
the blessings beyond the limits to which the policy of the government 
restricts foreigners, and to give a correct and scientific practice of medi- 
cine and surgery to an empire which exceeds in territory and population 
any other nation, is of itself a grand enterprise. The undertaking, so 
great, is also practicable. Had the object no claims beyond those 
already alluded to, it would be deemed sufficient in respect to any 
Christianised country ; but in relation to China, they are the subordinate 
claims, compared with still higher ones, to which they conduct. In 
exhibiting the utility and importance of this object, let it not be sup- 



21 

posed that any other is displaced. It is not to be lost sight of for a 
moment, that Divine truth is the great agent through which our ultimate 
aim is to be gained. While by the needle of the oculist the light may 
be poured upon the eye long dark, by the surgeon's knife the useless 
limb amputated, and by the physician's skill even the malignant disease 
may be cured, nothing short of a higher power can, in a moral sense, 
remove the film from the eye, clarify the spiritual vision, and heal the 
malady of sin. At present, however, it is but to a limited degree that 
the higher means can be employed ; but to exhibit the spirit and the 
fruits of the Gospel, Providence has remarkably opened the way ; and 
it is fondly hoped, that at no distant day, the Chinese will regard these 
benevolent offices as such, and permit us to publish and enforce the 
precepts of Christianity. After several years' experience and residence 
in China, the firm belief is expressed, that in the present state of the 
Chinese, who are prejudiced against foreigners, as avaricious and bar- 
barous, and possessed of no redeeming qualities, there is no method so 
directly adapted to remove false impressions, and to convince them of 
the true character of Christian men and the Christian religion, as by 
the plan adopted by the Medical Missionary Society in China, organ- 
ised in February 1838. The following extracts from the Constitution 
of that Society, and the subjoined documents, will best explain its char- 
acter and the object of the present statement. 

Extracts from Medical Missionary Society' 's Constitution. 

"1. That in order to give a wider extension, and a permanency, to the efforts 
that have already been made, to spread the benefits of rational medicine and sur- 
gery among the Chinese, a Society be organized at Canton, under the name of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China. That the object of this Society be, to en- 
courage gentlemen of the medical profession to come and practise gratuitously 
among the Chinese, by affording the usual aid of hospitals, medicine, and attend- 
ants; but that the support or remuneration of such medical gentlemen be not at 
present within its contemplation. 

L( 5. That this Assoeiation shall have a library, to be called t the Library of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the Committee 
of Management, by which donations of books, &c., may be accepted. 

""6. That this Society form a museum of natural and morbid anatomy, paintings 
of extraordinary diseases, Ac, to be called ' the Anatomical Museum of the Medical 
Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the Committee of 
Management. 

"7. That all real estate, or other property, belonging to the Society, be held on 
behalf of the same by a board of trustees, to consist of the president, the treasurer, 
and the auditor of accounts. 

u 8. That candidates for the patronage of the Society must furnish satisfactory 
certificates of their medical education, approved by the Society sending them out, 
with testimonials from some religious body, as to their piety, prudence, and correct 
moral and religious character. 

"9. That this Society will not assume the right to control any individual acting 
under its patronage, or to interfere with or modify the instructions he may have 
received from the Society sending him out. That it will, however, expect a strict 
observance of any general regulations for the management of its institutions, and a 
diligent study of some one dialect of the Chinese tongue, on the part of those who 
receive its patronage; aud that it will reserve to itself the right of withdrawing its 
patronage, at the discretion of the Committee of Management, from any individual 
who may, from non-compliance with its regulations, or from other causes, incur its 
displeasure." 

Regarding the qualifications of men to be employed, the Society used 
the following language : — 

M For the agents by whom we are to carry our object into execution, we must 
look to the Missionary Boards and Committees in Great Britain and the United 



22 

States They have it in their power to help us, and are best qualified to select men 
that are fitted to execute our designs. We do not engage to support such indivi- 
duals and therefore shall leave them free to cherish all the better feelings ot an 
honourable independence. We offer them hospitals, with every other necessary 
and suitable accommodation and means of effecting good. In these hospitals we 
require for the patients the same uniform and well-considered attention which are 
enjoyed in similar institutions at home. Men of eminent qualifications and tried 
character are indispensable for the successful prosecution of the work. For after 
the Society has done all it can do, by way of preparation, its direct influence on the 
Chinese is to be exerted through the agents it employs: on them, therefore, the 
destinies of the Society are suspended. If they fail, it fails; their success is its suc- 
cess. They are to give effect to the wishes of the Society and its friends. Too 
much care cannot be bestowed on their selection. Both in character and practice 
they should be every way good men. The constitution of the Society has been 
framed so as to guard, as far as it is in its power to guard, this point." 

The efforts to benefit the Chinese in this way, in modern times, are 
briefly these. Alexander Pierson, Esq., surgeon to the Honourable 
East India Company, introduced successfully the art of vaccination, in 
1805; this has since extended widely through the empire. Dr. Living- 
ston and Rev. Dr. Morrison opened an infirmary for the poor Chinese 
at Macao, in 1820, which was sustained for some time, and alleviated 
much suffering. In 1827, T. R. Colledge, Esq., surgeon to the Hon- 
ourable East India Company, opened his Eye Infirmary at Macao, 
and, during the three years of its continuance, afforded relief to no less 
than 4000 patients, among whom were persons in different ranks, and 
from various parts of the empire, from whom he received many and 
unequivocal tokens of gratitude. The Ophthalmic Hospital at Canton 
was opened by Rev. P. Parker, M.D., October, 1835, and the General 
Hospital at Macao, in July, 1838. Up to the 17th June, 1840, these 
institutions had received upwards of 8000 patients, embracing every 
variety of disease. It was after long effort that a place was found for 
a hospital; and when at length a suitable building was rented, and 
previous notice had been given, the first day no patients ventured to 
come ; the second, a solitary female affected with glaucoma, came ; the 
third day, half a dozen ; and soon they came in crowds. It is difficult 
to convey to a person who has not witnessed the scenes of the hospital, 
a just idea of them. He needs to be present on a day for receiving new 
patients, and behold respectable women and children assembling at the 
door the preceding evening, and sitting all night in the streets, that 
they might be in time to obtain an early ticket, so as to be treated the 
same day. He need behold in the morning the long line of sedans 
extending far in each direction ; see the mandarins, with their attendant 
footmen, horsemen, and standard-bearers; observe the dense mass in 
the room below, — parents lifting their children at arms' length above 
the crowd, lest they should be suffocated or injured; stand by during 
the examination and giving out of tickets of admission to the hall above, 
where they are registered and prescribed for ; urgent cases being admit- 
ted at once, while others are directed to come in five or ten days, accord- 
ing to the ability to attend to them. Upon that floor witness one or 
two hundred selected from the hundreds below, (many being sent away, 
some, indeed, irremediable, but still more curable, and deserving atten- 
tion ;) officers of various rank, from the district magistrate to the crim- 
inal judge of the province, sitting at the table of the physician, with 
scores of humbler fellow-citizens, seeking the same gratuity at the for- 
eigner's hand. 

As the impracticability of prescribing and operating the same day has 
required a day weekly for surgical operations, (and frequently two days 



23 

have been requisite,) on one of these occasions, too, he should be present. 
Usually, the amputation of limbs, extirpation of cancerous breasts, or 
excision of tumours, come first in the day; then a company of cataract 
patients — from six even to sixteen have been operated upon in the same 
hour. In another room are twenty or thirty affected with entropia and 
pterygia. Of this division he might observe a dozen patients seated 
along a bench, the surgeon passing from one to another, performing the 
operations, a native assistant following with needle and sutures, and a 
second with adhesive plaster and bandage, availing himself of system 
and classification for the sake of despatch. 

He need see the man or child, lately groping in darkness, now re- 
joicing to behold the light; and the fond mother, her countenance over- 
cast with gloom at the apprehension that her darling child must soon 
die, presently wanting terms to express her joy as she sees that child 
prattling around her, insensible to the danger from which it has been 
rescued. And, again, he should witness the gratitude of those whose 
protracted afflictions they had supposed would terminate only with life, 
in a few days restored to health ; and, as he beholds considerable num- 
bers who never again can see the light, think of a still larger company, 
who, but for the timely relief afforded, would have become alike un- 
fortunate. 

Patients from all parts of the empire have availed themselves of the 
benefits of the Hospital ; persons of all ranks — military, naval, and 
civil officers, the Nanhaeheen, or district magistrate, the customhouse 
officer, salt inspectors, provincial judges, provincial treasurers, a Tartar 
general, governors of provinces, commissioner Lin, and a number of 
the imperial family. 

A selection from the many hundreds of cures to be found in the Re- 
ports of the Hospital, will better explain the influence and benefits of 
the institution than any general remarks. They are in an abridged 
form. Two cases of interest are first introduced, that occurred in my 
practice at Singapore, where, from January to August, 1835, no less 
than 1000 were received at the dispensary. A Chinese had been 
■wounded by pirates. The ball entered just above the left ilium, and 
passed into the cavity of the abdomen, as was proved by introducing the 
finger. It occurred that a ball that made such an orifice must have 
some weight to it, and after some preliminary treatment, the patient, 
on the third day, was placed upon his hands and feet, and the weight 
of the ball was sufficient to indicate its situation. It was between the 
muscles, about two inches from the umbilicus, on the opposite side. An 
incision was made, and the ball extracted, and also a splinter of wood, 
and a portion of his garment, that were carried in with it. In six 
weeks the man was able to resume his labour. He received, and read, 
and commended, too, the Christian books in Chinese put into his hand. 
On being asked what he found that interested him, he replied, "A 
Saviour of men." 

A Hindoo was speared by pirates, near Singapore, and his spleen 
drawn out by the weapon. He had been exposed in a boat to the sun 
for twenty-four hours before he reached the hospital. The wounded 
viscus was inflamed, bloody, and filthy. In preference to returning it 
in such a state, it was excinded — the man recovered. 

Early after opening the hospital at Canton, was called to a young 
woman, who, at the approach of a thunder-shower, was descending with 
the clothes that had been out to dry on the top of the house. She was 
to descend into the house by a ladder; her feet slipped at the top 



21 

round ; she fell forward, and came down upon tho perpendicular stand- 
ard of her silk blades. It was a bamboo of an inch diameter, sawed 
off square. This entered the right axilla, passed upwards, fractured 
the clavicle, came out and re-entered the side of the neck, exposing the 
external jugular, perforated the trachea and oesophagus, and was 
arrested only by the hard palate on the opposite side. If she took any 
fluid, it passed out at the side of the neck ; and at every respiration the 
air passed also. In about six weeks the clavicle had united, the wounds 
healed up, and several spicula of bone exfoliated from the roof of the 
mouth ; the patient recovered, and has become an athletic woman. 

A young man fell from the roof of his house, fractured the humerus 
of his left arm. It partially united under the treatment of native 
physicians. Six months previously to coming to the hospital, in the 
crowd at a Chinese play, it was severed again, and never united. It 
was now thirty-one inches in circumference above the elbow, and ap- 
parently, the tumefaction was aneurismal, and the integument was very 
much attenuated. It was amputated at the shoulder joint with com- 
plete success. The severed limb weighed twenty-three pounds. Tho 
young man is now alive, in the enjoyment of good health, whereas, but 
for this operation, he could not have lived many weeks. 

In 1837, a young woman from Fashan had a tumour attached to the 
chin and throat more than two feet in circumference. It was in the 
warm month of June when she first came to the hospital, the ther- 
mometer averaging 90° in the shade. About to embark for Loo-chew 
and Japan, I advised her to defer the operation till the cold weather of 
autumn. But no delay could be acceded to on the part of tho patient 
and her venerable grandfather. The tumour was removed. The 
operation was performed in about two minutes. The tumour weighed 
sixteen pounds. In ten days the wound was healed. In December, 
after my return from Japan, the patient returned to the hospital to ex- 
press her gratitude, and brought with her her first-born son, a fine 
infant of six weeks old. 

From a man about forty years of age, a tumour weighing seven 
pounds, attached to the neck and throat, extending from the left ear to 
several inches on the right side of the neck, was also successfully ex- 
cinded. 

In 1838, a young man, aged twenty-three, came to the hospital with 
a singular disease of tho hairy scalp, of ten years' growth. A mass 
half the size of his head hung loose over the right ear, and down the 
back of the neck. It was removed. The integuments were very much 
thickened, but separated from the unformed mass beneath, which was 
dissected out, exposing the pericranium below. The portion of scalp 
taken away was nearly large enough to cover one-third of his head. 
He perfectly recovered in eight weeks. 

Choo Yihleang, a young man blooming with health, had a tumour of 
a peculiar character on the right side of his neck, as large as his head. 
It was situated beneath the superficial fascia and its superincumbent 
muscles. The day preceding the operation, the patient requested not 
to be tied, assuring me he would not move a limb or utter a word. 
When the moment arrived, instead of shrinking from the crisis, he put 
one hand on the table, and skipped upon it with great agility, as if joy- 
ful in the prospect of being freed from so troublesome a companion. In 
twenty days he was quite well. 

.V few weeks after this man, another, named Woo Kinshing aged 
forty, presented himself with a tumour of great magnitude, resembling 



25 

in shape a tenor viol. Superiorly, it extended over the shoulder to the 
spine of the scapula, and from the acromion process to the trachea ; 
and from the axilla to the sternum, and as low as the breast, carrying 
that gland down before it. The circumference at the base was three feet 
three inches, its perpendicular length two feet, and its transverse diameter 
one foot eight inches. It was very vascular, especially the upper portion 
of it, which was in an inflamed and ulcerated state; and the principal 
vein that returned the blood of the tumour, near the clavicle, when dis- 
tended with blood, from pressure with the finger upon it, was apparently 
half an inch diameter. There was a deep longitudinal fissure, and 
ulcers at several points, discharging blood, lymph, and pus. The weight 
of it had become exceedingly burdensome, and several times a-day the 
patient experienced severe paroxysms of pain, causing him to groan 
aloud, at which times he laid his tumour upon the floor, and reclined 
himself upon it ; in this posture he spent most of his time, day and 
night. His countenance and furrowed brow expressed the calamity he 
suffered. The tumour, with great difficulty, but with complete success, 
was removed ; it weighed fifteen pounds avoirdupois, and in eight weeks 
the patient was discharged in good health. 

In one instance, a man presented himself at the hospital with a 
tumour attached to his back, and extending nearly to the ground. It 
was over four feet circumference, and would weigh, probably, from 
seventy-five to a hundred pounds. When he sat down it formed a large 
circular cushion, that elevated him seven or eight inches. It was pro- 
posed to remove it ; but his idol, which he consulted on the occasion, 
decided against an operation. In 1838 he died of a fever. 

Dropsies are common, and in one instance twelve gallons of fluid 
were abstracted at the same time from a young woman, and permanent 
relief followed. 

Besides the common diseases to which men in different countries are 
subject, some of a peculiar character have presented. In 1839, Chow- 
Keatseuen, a florist, aged thirty-one, had a horn upon the top of his 
head. Previously to his coming to the hospital, half an inch of the 
top had been cut off; the remaining portion, resembling a truncated 
cone, was a full inch high, and two inches in circumference. It was 
attached wholly to the integument of the scalp. Two eliptical incisions 
were made, so as to take out the whole of the integument in which it 
originated. This was pretematurally soft, and the veins and arteries 
were unusually numerous. The wound was brought together by sutures 
and adhesive plaster, and in one week it was quite well. 

Every form of ophthalmic disease has presented ; and great numbers 
are now to be found, in different provinces, who once were blind, but 
are now enjoying the light of day. A mere outline of the operations 
of the hospital is all that has been aimed at in this statement. A com- 
pilation of all the Reports and proceedings of the Society, with plates, 
representing the more important surgical cases, is in contemplation for 

the public. 

The most unequivocal expressions of gratitude have been manifested, 
both in words and in actions. The father, whose only child, a beautiful 
daughter, had a tumour of seven pounds weight removed from her back, 
after she was discharged well, returned with a scroll with a poetical in- 
scription to the physician to this effect : — " A grievous disease had en- 
twined itself around my little daughter ; I had gone in various direc- 
tions seeking for physicians of distinction, and had expended much 
money upon 3 them in vain. When I heard of the foreign physi- 



20 

cian in the provincial city, I took my daughter by the hand, and re- 
paired to his residence with the speed of a courser. He received and 
treated my daughter, removing the flaw from the gem, and now she is 
a perfect pearl again." Though it is more than five years since the 
operation, the father retains the most lively gratitude, and returns from 
year to year with expressions of it. Similar gratitude has been mani- 
fested by the young lady from Nanking, who was cured of an excres- 
cence growing upon the centre of the cornea of her left eye. In one 
instance, a brother and sister, the one nineteen, and the other twenty- 
one, had cataracts, so that they had lived together for years without 
seing each others ' face. They were accompanied by their fond parents. 
AVhen the operation was successfully performed for both, they were 
then, in the presence of their parents, brought to see each other. The 
emotions of all were such as the occasion was calculated to produce. 
The feelings of Masze Yay, a Chinese officer still living, and who sends 
yearly rembrances to the physician, is expressed in a poem which may 
be found quoted in the Penny Magazine for July, 1337. The Tartar 
general, who had cataracts, on leaving the hospital, remarked, that he 
had been an office-bearer forty-one years, had visited all the eighteen 
provinces of the empire, "but, (alluding to the operations of the hos- 
pital,) never have I seen or heard of one who does such things before," 
and burst forth in the exclamation, " Taetih, Teen slwcl te e !co jin! " — 
Superlative virtue! the first man under heaven! &c. &c. 

On the day the hospital was closed at Canton, June 17th, 1840, about 
200 Chinese patients and their friends were present; and when the 
patients who came that day for the first time understood that the hos- 
pital was to be closed for a time, they fell upon their faces, and, knock- 
ing head upon the ground, with tears entreated that they too might be 
healed by the physician ; and after his instruments were put up to come 
away, he was prevailed upon to take them out again, to remove all the 
fingers and the thumb, which were mortified, of a virtuous young lady 
of seventeen years. 

Most gratifying intelligence has been received from ffm. Lockhart, 
Esq. and B. Hobson, Esq. of this country, who are now engaged in this 
cause in China. At Chushan, Mr. Lockhart has already treated several 
hundreds of Chinese, and has a young man of much promise assisting 
him. That the existing difficulties between England and China will, 
sooner or later, be re-adjusted so as to afford a more extended inter- 
course with that empire, none acquainted with the power of England 
on the one hand, and the very general desire of the Chinese for com- 
merce on the other, can doubt ; when, to a greater extent than we are 
prepared to occupy, a sphere of benevolent operations will be opened. 

More than three years ago, Sir Henry Malford, Bart., President of 
the Royal College of Physicians, delivered an interesting address before 
that royal institution, exhibiting some of the results of the successful 
practice of physic; the Duke of Cambridge, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and Sir Robert Peel, and many other distinguished members of 
the bar, the bench, and the senate, being present. The sentiments of 
the noble baronet are so important and pertinent to the subject that 
copious extracts are introduced from the address.* 

" I do not intend," said he, " to advert to the pecuniary fruits of our toil; nor do 
I mean to speak of the honours awarded to physicians. No — I contemplate the 

* N.B. The Address may be obtained at Murray's, Albemarle-Street, and is worthy the 
perusal of alL 



27 

moral influence which the cure of the ills of the body ha3 upon the minds of the 
patient. I allude to that deference to the physician's judgment on other subjects, 
which follows his successful exercise of it over pain and sickness— to that gratitude 
and attachment, which is the sweetest reward of our anxious and laborious life. It 
is your peculiar privilege, my brethren, in the daily exercise of your calling, to go 
about doing good; and it ought to be a gratification and encouragement to you to 
recollect, that the great Author of our salvation first conciliated the attention and 
good-will of the multitudes which followed him, by healing their sick. Nor is it 
possible to find a happier moment to create and establish a confidence and a regard 
in the heart of the sick person, and of those who are attached to him, than this, in 
■which his own hopes and fears, and those of his friends, hang upon the physician's 
counsel and his decision." 

But while daily experience confirmed the truth of his position, he 
preferred turning to history for its verification. After alluding to 
Homer and Hippocrates in ancient times, and Jenner in modern, he 
proceeds, — 

" But the anecdote most flattering to the medical profession, which I would recal 
to your remembrance, is the occasion of the first establishment of the East India 
Company's power on the coast of Coromandel, which was procured by the favour 
of the Great Mogul to one of our profession, Gabriel Boughton, in gratitude for his 
efficient help in a case of great distress to the monarch ; on which the Great Mogul's 
minister asked him what his master could do for him, to manifest his gratitude for 
so important a service? Gabriel answered, with a disinterestedness, a generosity, a 
patriotism beyond praise, * Let my nation trade with yours.' — * Be it so.' Hence 
did the civilization of that vast continent begin — from hence the blessed light of 
the Gospel may have been first promulgated amongst a hundred millions of native 
idolaters, since made partakers of our enlightened comforts." 

" This happy result of the successfnl interposition of one of our medical brethren," 
remarked Sir Henry, " suggests a question to my mind, — of the expediency of edu- 
cating missionaries, who are to be sent to the rude, uninformed population of distant 
countries to propagate the Gospel, in the medical art, as the earliest object of their 
studies, in order that they make themselves more acceptable than if they presented 
themselves professedly to teach a new religion. I propound this question with 
great diffidence, particularly in the presence of that part of my audience with whom 
it may rest to direct the preliminary education of this useful body of men; but I 
know that the candour of these venerable characters is equal to their high dignity, 
and that they will receive my suggestions in good part, and feel assured that I mean 
that these missionaries should carry the Gospel in their heads and in their hearts, 
and govern their conduct by its precepts." 

" I am sanguine enough to believe that even the Chinese, that proud 
and exclusive people, would receive into their country those who enter 
with these views, without that suspicion and distrust which they never 
fail to manifest when they surmise that trade is the object of the stran- 
ger's visit, or some covert intention to interfere with their institutions; 
and that this might be made the occasion of giving the comfort of the 
Gospel to three hundred and sixty millions more of the inhabitants of 
our globe, in process of time." Then, calling attention to what had 
been done recently at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton, he adds, — 

" By endeavouring to benefit both the body and the soul, some favourable impres- 
sion, it is to be expected, will be made on the minds of this people. We cannot 
expect the Chinese to grasp with eagerness at our improvements, yet the cure of 
diseases, set down at once as fatal, in their experience, must be likely to facilitate 
the introduction of our knowledge, and add most humanely to their civilization, 
and not to their temporal happiness only, but to their future felicity, by the intro- 
duction of the holy Scriptures amongst them, by this avenue." 

On leaving China in July last, the following letter was addressed to 

Dr. Parker: — 

" To the Rev. Peter Pabkek, M.D. 

" Macao, ZrdJuhj, 1840. 
" My dear Doctor Parker,— The Committee of the Medical Missionary Society 
have requested me to convey to you their sentiments upon your contemplated visit 



28 

to your native country, and it is with feelings of high satisfaction ttiat I accede to 
their request. This will be best shown in the words of the resolutions embodied 
in the minutes of the last meeting of the committee, held on the 1st of this month. 

" ( Dr. Parker having stated his intention of proceeding to America for a short 
time, the committee have much satisfaction in recording their full approval. 

u ' While the committee cannot but regret that recent occurrences should cause 
any interruption to services so valuable as those which Or. Parker has rendered in 
Canton, they fully concur in the opinion, that as the arduous duties in which he 
has been engaged, during a residence of six years in this climate, make it apparent 
that, in a few years at least, a temporary return to his native country would be 
necessary, his labours could at no time be so well spared as while the unsettled 
state of affairs in China render it necessary to close the hospital in Canton, and 
while there is so much uncertainty of a speedy solution of the difficulties that now 
interfere with a free intercourse with the Chinese. 

" ' From Dr. Parker's well known zeal in propagating an enlightened faith, and 
in the pursuit of the medical profession as a means of promoting that object among 
the Chinese, the committee entertain hopes that the interests of the society will be 
benefited by his visit to America, and the opportunities it will afford of a personal 
exposition of the objects of the society, by one who has enjoyed such extensive in- 
tercourse with this people; and the committee would suggest the propriety of tak- 
ing occasion to lay before the public in America, and in England, should it be con- 
venient for Dr. Parker to visit that country before his return, a statement of the 
objects and prospects of the society, the work that has been already done, and the 
preparation now making by the medical officers of the society to take advantage of 
a more extended sphere of usefulness. 

"■ ' The committee also take this opportunity of expressing their high sense of the 
value of Dr. Parker's services, of his unremitting attention to his professional duties, 
of his patient endurance in overcoming the obstacles that exist in the Chinese mind 
to an intercourse with foreigners, and of his ardent zeal in doing good; and request 
Dr. Anderson to convey to him the sentiments contained in the above resolutions, 
and the hope they entertain of his return ere long to resume his labours, when 
there is e\cry hope that the exclusive policy of this empire may be removed, and an 
unlimited field of useful labour opened.' 

M In acting as the organ of the committee on this occasion, I have the greatest 
pleasure in bearing witness to the general interest that is taken in the Medical 
Missionary Society, to the zeal and abilities you have manifested in your professional 
labours among the Chinese, and to the success that has attended them; to the high 
feeling of respect that is entertained by the whole community in China for yourself 
as a man and as a Christian, and as one devoting your life to an object productive 
of so much present good, and that holds out so much hope of promoting the eternal 
welfare of a large portion of our fellow men. 

" With most sincere wishes that the interests of the society may be advanced, 
and your own constitution renovated by your visit to your native land, 
" Believe me, my dear Doctor Parker, yours most sincerely, 
" To (he Rev. P. Parker i M.D. Alexander, Anderson." 

In accordance with the wishes thus expressed by the Society, Dr. 
Parker has presented the subject in America, where it has met with a, 
most cordial reception, particularly from the medical profession, ever 
ready to promote the best interests of their fellow-men. In New York, 
he had the pleasure of meeting a number of the most distinguished 
gentlemen in the profession, at their own request. Not merely willing 
to aid by their money, but believing that an expression of the estimation 
in which their labours were held by the medical faculty, well known in 
the city, would be calculated to secure the confidence and aid of the 
benevolent, who are ever ready to patronise a worthy object, a commit- 
tee was appointed to draw up such a testimonial, which is also sub- 
joined. 

"New York, April 6th, 1841. 

" We, the undersigned members of the medical profession, having made ourselves 

acquainted with the plans of the Medical Missionary Society of China, do hereby 

cordially recommend the objects of that Society to the Christian community in this 

country. The leading object of the Society is the establishment of hospitals and 



29 

dispensaries'in the accessible parts of the Chinese empire. By founding such insti- 
tutions, the Society hopes to confer immense benefits upon the Chinese people. It 
is well known, that the system of medicine which is pursued in China by the native 
physicians, consists of an absurd farrago of empirical remedies, which are adminis- 
tered without discrimination; and that these practitioners are acquainted with no 
remedies for many of the most simple and easily curable forms of disease. It is 
therefore manifest that the establishment of hospitals, and of other kindred insti- 
tutions, under the direction of well educated and properly qualified physicians, 
must be a source of great benefit to the people. And it appears from the published 
reports of the Medical Missionary Society, that the hospitals which have already 
been established have been the means of relieving a large amount of suffering, of 
removing manyfdi stressing infirmities, and of saving a uumber of valuable lives. 
Another important advantage to be derived from these institutions is the oppor- 
tunity of instructing native young men in the principles of the healing art, and thus 
of rearing up a body of practitioners, to extend the benefits of medical science and 
professional skill among the millions of their countrymen. It is hoped that by 
these means the confidence of the Chinese people may be gained, and that the pre- 
judices 'which they entertain towards foreigners may be overcome: indeed much 
has already been accomplished in this manner. The ultimate and the most import- 
ant object at which the Society aims in the prosecution of its plans, is the advance- 
ment of the Christian religion among the inhabitants of this vast and populous 
empire; and there is probably no other method by which the confidence of the 
people can be so readily secured, and so powerful an influence can be exerted in 
favour of Christianity, and so strong a practical demonstration can be given of its 
benevolent attributes. The advantages resulting from these institutions are fully 
appreciated^ by the resident missionaries from England and America, who are 
engaged in more direct efforts to lead the Chinese people to the knowledge and 
adoption of the Christian faith. So far as we are acquainted with the individuals 
who are engaged in this enterprise, and with the measures which they are pursuing 
in order to its advancement, we regard them as entitled to the highest confidence. 
An effort is about to be made to obtain the co-operation of benevolent persons in 
this country and in England, in promoting the objects and extending the benefits 
of the Medical re Missionary Society. Believing, as we do, that the highest interests 
of the people of China are involved in the success of this undertaking, we heartily 
unite in urging its claim upon the confidence and support of the community. 

ei J. Kearny Rodgers, M.D. James M'Neilson, M.D. 

Ja. Bliss, M.D. E. Mead, M.D. 

Nicoll H. Dering, M.D. Gilbert Smith, M.D. 

Joseph M. Smith, M.D. Albert Smith, M.D. 

J. Smyth Rogers, M.D. Alfred C. Post, M.D. 

James L. Phelps. Benj. Ogden, M.D." 

In the city of "Washington, (D.C.,) in Philadelphia and Boston, simi- 
lar interest was manifested, and resolutions passed. The minutes of 
the Medical Association of Boston, at a full meeting held on the 14th 
April, and signed by the most distinguished ornaments of the profession 
in that city, and several of them professors in Havard University, is 
also given : — 

« BOSTON MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

" At a meeting of the Boston Medical Association, in the Massachusetts Medical 
College, on the 14th of April, 1841, the attention of the meeting was called by 
Dr Jackson to the subject of the hospitals established in Canton and Macao in 
China, to the Medical Missionary Society formed in that country, and to the efforts 
which/ were making there to extend a knowledge of medical and surgical science 
anions the natives. He stated that, in 1834, the Rev. Peter Parker, M.D., was 
sent bv the American Board for Foreign Missions, as a missionary to China ; that 
this centleman had previously studied medicine as well as theology, had received, 
in regular course, a medical diploma from Yale College, and was, by his talents and 
character admirably adapted for the work he engaged in; that on his arrival in 
China he was induced to evince the excellence of his religion by acts of benevolence 
and professional skill, by healing the sick, by giving sight to the blind, and by en- 

klme 1 the lame to walk; that in 1835, he established a hospital in Canton, and 
s bieauently one at Macao; that his own sendees had been rendered in all cases, 

1 ther to the rich or to the poor, without fee or reward; and that he had found 



30 

means to give support to many poor patients while undergoing treatment; that 
hitherto the expenses of his hospitals, which were exceedingly moderate, [had 
been defrayed by contributions derived principally from the American and English 
residents in China, but that in the present state of mercantile affairs in that country, 
these resources had failed; that it was desirable, not only to maintain these hospi- 
tals, but to establish others wherever the Chinese would permit; and for this pur- 
pose assistance must be sought in this country and in Great Britain, and, if possible, 
that this benevolent project should be carried on and maintained by permanent 
funds. It was further stated, that Dr. Parker had made many valuable friends 
among the English at Canton, and by their invitation he was about to make a short 
visit to Great Britain; that he looked to that country, as well as to this, for aid to 
his benevolent efforts; and that he surely might well solicit this aid, a3 he had no- 
thing to ask for himself, but had devoted his life to the objects which had been de- 
scribed, receiving only a bare support from the Board which had employed him; 
that it became medical men to sympathise with one who had done so much honour 
to their profession; that a recommendation of Dr. Parker's objects to public favour 
by this Association might have some influence, although it would seem manifest 
that, without any recommendation, men of intelligence and wealth would see that 
the furtherance of those objects would be not less important to the interests of the 
trading community, than to those of an enlarged philanthropy. He then stated 
that Dr. Parker had come to the meeting on his invitation, and moved that Dr. 
Parker be requested to give a statement of his experience on the subject which 
had been mentioned, and an explanation of his wishes in regard to it. 

" Dr. Parker then proceeded to give to the meeting, at some length, an account 
of the state of medical science among the Chinese, by which it appeared that little 
knowledge of the principles of medicine exists in that nation, and still less of sur- 
gery. Their practice is grossly inefficient, and marked by ignorant and superstitious 
formalities. Since the establishment of the missionary hospitals, many thousands 
have resorted to them for relief, and among these have been many individuals 
from a great distance, some of them persons of rank and wealth, and even members 
of the emperor's household. The applications were stated to be more numerous 
than could be received, and the confidence entertained in the medical powers of 
the foreign physicians, by the Chinese, was most extensive and implicit. Many in- 
teresting cases were detailed, of the relief afforded by Dr. Parker and his asssociates, 
particularly in his surgical and ophthalmic operations, in cases to which the re- 
sources of the native practitioners were totally incompetent. 

tC No one who heard the statements of Dr. Parker could refrain from being satis- 
fied, that the introduction of an enlightened medical practice among the Chinese, 
offers one of the surest avenues to the confidence and friendly intercourse of that 
secluded people. 

"It was then voted that the following resolves be adopted, as expressing the 
opinions of this Association: — 

"1. That the measures which have been pursued in China by the Rev. Peter 
Parker, M.D., as a Christian missionary, merit the highest commendation, as ex- 
hibiting to the Chinese a compliance with the great law of love, which distinguishes 
the Christian religion. 

" 2. That the course pursued by Dr. Parker is to be commended for its prospective 
as well as immediate effects, inasmuch as, while he has afforded relief to the sick 
and suffering, the treatment of them has been made to furnish instruction to native 
Chinese, by whom a knowledge of medicine and surgery may be rendered more ex- 
tensively useful among their numerous countrymen. 

"3. The disinteretedness and personal sacrifices of a missionary, who banishes 
himself from his own country, as Dr. Parker has done, to labour in a foreign land, 
add very much to the interest which the objects of his pursuit are well calculated to 
inspire. 

w 4. That the benefits to be obtained by a continuation of the labours of Dr. Par- 
ker, with those of such coadjutors as may be joined to him, are so manifest and 
practical, and the prospects opening from them promise so much benefit to the mer- 
cantile intercourse of our countrymen, as well as to the Chinese nation, that his 
plans must undoubtedly obtain the support of our citizens, if they can be brought 
distinctly before them. 

" 5. That, accordingly, this Association invite the attention of men of property to 
the medical establishments in China, and earnestly recommend that they should 
furnish such assistance as shall give a permanent maintenance to these establish- 
ments. 

"6. That a committee be appointed to consult with any persons who may take 



31 

an interest in the subject of the medical establishments in China, and to take such 
measures as may seem to them expedient, to obtain the aid required. 

"It was voted that Drs. Jackson, Warren, Shattuck, Hooper, and Bowditch, be 
a committee to carry into effect the sixth resolution. 

" It was voted that the proceedings of this meeting be published, signed by the 
names of the chairman and secretary, together with those of a committee appointed 
for the purpose. 

"James Jackson. John Jeffries. 

John C. Warren. Enoch Hale. 

George C. Shattuck. Woodbridge Strong. 

Walter Channing. John B. S. Jackson. 

Edward Reynolds. J. V. C. Smith. 

Solomon Townsend. John Ware, Committee. 

George Hayward. 

Jacob Bigelow, Chairman. 
James B. Gregerson, Secretary. 9 ' 

The object proposed is to raise in England and America a permanent 
fund for the support of the "Medical Missionary Society in China," 
for the maintenance of the hospitals already established, and for the 
founding of others at every accessible and eligible part of China; it 
being also a prominent object to train up Chinese youth of talent, to ex- 
tend the blessings through the empire ; in all our efforts, never losing 
sight of the paramount object, — the introduction of the Gospel. 

A peculiarity of the Medical Missionary Society in China is, that it addresses 
itself to the consideration of all. The man of science and the philanthropist, who 
look especially to immediate benefits, are here interested; and to the sympathies 
of those who, while they equally appreciate the desirableness of contributing in 
every feasible manner to the welfare of their species for time, contemplate with 
unspeakably more solicitude those interests which are eternal, it presents an irre- 
sistible, an overwhelming claim. When we reflect upon the present state of surgery 
and medicine in China, the suffering that is experienced, the lives annually and 
needlessly lost, and advert to the time when similar ignorance was the misfortune 
of the nations of Europe; and when we consider the rational basis upon which 
science is now established, and our facilities for imparting to others the incalculable 
benefits received from the application of chemistry and natural and inductive phi- 
losophy to the subject of health, in the investigation of the causes and phenomena 
of disease, and the means of controlling it. 

The world is a whole — and as the human race approximates to the perfection 
which it is destined to reach, the principle of union and fellow-feeling will become 
more and more influential. A Bacon, a Newton, or a Franklin, is not to be mono- 
polized. Such men belong not merely to the nation that gave them birth, but to 
the whole world. They were doubtless designed by Providence to be blessings, not 
merely to a single age or country, but to all successive ages, and to every land. 
Upon those who first enjoyed the boon, rests the obligation to extend universally 
their principles, which have revolutionized the philosophy and science of Europe, 
and which, whenever permitted free ingress, will produce similar results in China. 
Surely, no accumulation of arguments is required to prove a case so clear. If the 
principle is admitted, that our race is one, then the remoteness of the empire for 
which we plead cannot neutralize the obligation. 

When we survey the vastness of the field, the good to be effected, and when, re- 
flecting upon the immense resources of the western hemisphere, we compare these 
with the small portion of wealth required to secure the desired object, we are con- 
fident that benevolence, disinterested like its Author, and as expansive as the woes 
of man are extensive, will not withhold the means. A rare opportunity is here 
afforded to the philanthropist of doing good — of enjoying the felicity of imparting 
to others without diminution to himself, some of his richest blessings. He is in- 
vited to unite in accomplishing a great, immediate, and positive good, — is encouraged 
by the hope of immediate success, to aid in uniting to the great family of nations, 
this long severed and secluded branch, and in introducing among the people, not 
only the healing art, but in its train the sciences, and all the blessings of Chris- 
tianity. 

"When passing through this great metropolis, my eye falls upon those 
noble capitals, inscribed upon hospitals and infirmaries, — "Founded 



32 

by Voluntary Contribution," or at St. Paul's cathedral I behold the 
bust of Howard, with the key of the prison in one hand, and the impor- 
tant scroll, "A Proposal for the Improvement of Prisons," in the 
other, and the chains and manacles of the prisoner under his feet, I am 
reminded this is the land in which philanthropy has flourished. And 
when an object so vast and so good, and withall so practicable, as to 
give hospitals and infirmaries, retreats for the insane, and asylums for 
lepers, and an elightened medical and surgical practice to the millions 
of China, and ultimately, all the blessings of Christianity, — the sanguine 
hope is cherished, that it will meet a full response. 

In reference to the direct benefit resulting from the efforts of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China, his Royal Highness the Duke of 
Sussex remarked, — " Yes, I can speak experimentally upon that sub- 
ject, having had the cataract extracted from both my eyes; " and added, 
that several members of his family had had also the same affection. 
This is a case in point, and from its proximity in time and space, must 
be appreciated. Let any reflect upon the happiness derived from surgi- 
cal skill in this instance, rendering visible the beauties of the park and 
the palace, and, above all, the greetings of friendly countenances, in- 
stead of spending the evening of life in total darkness! This happiness 
has been conferred on hundreds in the various provinces of the Chinese 
empire, where, upon the child of four years, and the aged patient of 
fourscore, the operation has been successfully performed for tho same. 
Upon myriads more, through coming generations, similar blessings may 
be conferred. If the healing art is to be introduced into China, who 
can better do it than the nations of the west. When it is once estab- 
lished, it is not likely it will bo lost again ; and thus the blessings, each 
soTvaluable, will be multiplied and extended through coming time, 
whilst the more important ones at which we aim will pass onward during 
the endless future. 



BELL AND BAIN, PRINTERS, GLASGOW. 



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